Archiwalny teledysk promujący film “Ziemia Obiecana” Andrzeja Wajdy, 1974. // Archival video promoting Andrzej Wajda’s movie “The Promised Land”, 1974.
Słowa/Lyrics: Jonasz Kofta. Muzyka/Music: Zygmunt Konieczny
"Sword at his side, the so-called Young Warrior (left) is among the thousand-year-old discoveries in a new found cemetery in Poland, a new study says.
The burial ground holds not only a hoard of precious objects but also hints of human sacrifice—and several dozen graves of a mysterious people with links to both the Vikings and the rulers of the founding states of eastern Europe.” Read More
Amulet - kaptorga
5 most important mounds of Kraków, Poland:
1. Krakus Mound - Kopiec Krakusa (Kraka) [x] - assumed to be the resting place of the legendary founder of Kraków - prince Krakus (Krak), but the age and the original purpose of the mound remain a mystery. According to the 17th-century city plans and 19th-century iconographics, there were several smaller mounds existing around it, but they were being gradually pulled down and used as building material in order to create defensive structures during the past wars. Preliminary archaeological excavations were conducted in the 1930s, but concerned only some parts of the site and the top of the mound - around 4% of the site in total - and were never finished due to the lack of funds after the 2nd World War. The general site is dated to c. 2nd-1st century BC, although much older (neolithic) findings were unearthed around it as well. No specific place of burial was found yet. The main Krakus Mound was overbuilt to the modern size presumably between 8th-10th centuries CE. Remains of the oak roots found at the top of the mound determine that the object was a place of cult before the introduction of Christianity. [in Polish / po polsku: więcej o tych wykopaliskach i broszura z pierwszych lat badań (1934)]
2. Wanda Mound - Kopiec Wandy [x] - assumed to be the resting place of the legendary princess Wanda, daughter of Krakus. Nowadays, the top of the mound is decorated with a memorial, designed around 1890 by Jan Matejko (one of the most important Polish artists of that time). Archaeological excavations of the mound have never been performed, the official dating determine its creation to c. 7th-8th century CE, however the excavations performed in the mound’s surroundings revealed a great number of much older artifacts associated with the Trzciniec Culture.
3. Esterka Mound - Kopiec Esterki [x] - a relatively small mound which, according to a legend, was build (or more likely overbuilt) in the 14th century on the orders of King Casimir the Great for Esterka - his semi-legendary misstress. Another legend claims its older origins, dating back to the pre-Christian times: it might have been an ancient place of worship, part of a cult complex together with Krakus, Wanda and other (no longer existing) mounds. Last remains of this mound were destroyed in the 1940s in order to create barracks during the war, later the place was taken over by the communistic government to create a sports field next to the neighbouring palace (on the site of old palace gardens).
4. Kościuszko Mound - Kopiec Kościuszki [x] - one of the two Cracovian mounds created in order to honour the national heroes. Built between 1820-1823 for the memory of Tadeusz Kościuszko (hero of Poland, Lithuania and Belarus, who also gained fame during the American Revolution). Its location was chosen not far from a presumed (legendary) ancient mound.
5. Piłsudski Mound - Kopiec Piłsudskiego [x] - created between 1934-1937 for the memory of Józef Piłsudski (Polish-Lithuanian general and politician, first chief of the newly independent Poland established after the 1st World War). Built not far from the location of a presumed (legendary) ancient mound.
To read: “Issues concerning the existence and functions of the so-called great kurgans in Małopolska in early phases of the Early Middle Ages / Zagadnienie istnienia i funkcji tzw. wielkich kurhanów w Małopolsce w starszych fazach wczesnego średniowiecza”, Marek Florek in: Analecta Archaeologica Ressoviensia vol.III.